Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:24 PM | Posted by admin|
The greatest Mughal emperor of India, Jalal-Ud-Din Mohammed Akbar, founded a new religion, DIN-I-ILLAHI (Divine Religion) in 1582. It aimed to synthesize the best that was in Hinduism and Islam. He wanted to establish a national religion, which would enable the Hindus and Muslims to worship God at the same shrine in a common ritual. But this religion was too philosophical to attract people. It attracted only few followers and practically died with the emperor.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:20 PM | Posted by admin
The Din-I-Illahi was essentially an ethical system. It prohibited sins as lust, sensuality, slander and pride and laid emphasis on virtues of piety, prudence, abstinence and kindness. There was no sacred scriptures or a priestly hierarchy in this religion. Animal slaughter was prohibited, this religion encouraged the soul to purify itself through yearning for God. Virginity was condoned.
Akbar (1542-1605) was the son of Humayun and the grandson of Babar. He was born on October 15,1542 at Umarkot, Sind now in Pakistan. Akbar became governor of Punjab at the age of 13 and succeeded his father Humayun on the Mughal throne in 1556. By 1562, with his able generalship he reigned over Punjab and Multan, the basin of the Ganges and Jamuna rivers, Gwalior to the south and Kabul in Afghanistan in the northwest. He crossed the Narmada River into the Deccan and extended his domain to southward. By 1605, his empire contained 15 provinces or subhas and stretched from the Hindu Kush mountains to the Dodavari River and from Bengal across to Gujarat.
In order to preserve the unity in his kingdom, Akbar was quite favorable towards the non-Muslim population. And so he won the hearts of Hindus and other communities also. He reformed and strengthened his central administration and also centralised his financial system and reorganized tax-collection procedure.
Ice cream as it is known today was not the product of a single discovery or invention. Therefore it is impossible to assign a definite date to its origin. There is reason for supposing, however, that ice cream originated in Italy, perhaps before the discovery of America. A variety of frozen compound was a common delicacy in Florence during the sixteenth century, and when Catherine de Medici became queen of France in 1533 she took her outfit for making a ice cream with her to Paris. The proprietors of Florin's Cafe in Naples maintain that ice cream was manutactured and sold there by a man named Florin nearly two hundred years ago. We have no means of determining what the nature of this early ice cream was.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:18 PM | Posted by admin
Records of the introduction of ice cream into England are equally meager. In 1769 Mrs. Elizabeth Raffald published a book in London entitled "The Experienced Housekeeper" in which she gave the recipe for making a kind of ice cream. Ice cream made by a man named Hall, of 75 Chatham Street, now Park Row, was advertised in New York June 8, 1786, and there is record that a Mrs. Johnson served ice cream at a ball given in New York December 12, 1789.
In 1802 Samuel Latham Mitchill, a member of Congress from New York, wrote a letter to his wife in which he described a dinner given in Washington by President Jefferson. The dessert, wrote Mitchill, was of frozen fruit juices, well sweetened and shaped like a ball, inclosed in a steaming hot pastry, which was placed on a plate, the whole being covered with rich cream. The fact that Dolly Madison served ice cream in the White House at a New Year's reception during the Presidency of her husband is referred to in a letter written at the time by a Mrs. Seaton. But ice cream did not become common until many years later. It was still an oddity when the widow of Alexander Hamilton served it at a dinner given in Washington in honor of President Jackson. The first factory for the manufacture of ice cream in commercial quantities was established in Maryland in 1851.
About 38 million years ago, when the first large mammals were living on Earth, the climate underwent a great change. In the Oligocene Period, 38 to 27 million years ago, it was still warm and temperate but in the Miocene which followed it grew colder, affecting the spread of the plants. Many tropical or subtropical types of plant disappeared and even the woods shrank, to be replaced by immense grassy plains.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:13 PM | Posted by admin
The effect of this change on animal evolution were far-reaching. Many mammals who had been used to feeding on the shoots of trees and bushes had to adapt to feeding on grass. This led to their gradual transformation, which was particularly noticeable in the shape of their teeth and the structure of their feet and necks.
In the Miocene Period, the mountain chains which has begun to emerge in the earlier periods continued to be lifted up. New land surfaced above the sea, with result that the oceans shrank. These movements were completed in the Pliocene Period (the last in the Cenozoic Era), which lasted 8 million years. By the end of it, the shape of the continents was it is today. The fossils discovered in Pliocene soil show animal form which are in many ways similar to those of the present. Other fossils belong to species which are now extinct but it is easy to imagine the exact shape of their bodies.
The strangest of these were certain forms of proboscidea, such as the Amebolodon, with long, flexible noses.
Animal-life had already attained the variety of modern times when, about a million years ago, new changes in climate occurred, upsetting the pattern of life on the continents. The cold became intense and large ice-caps covered the globe as far down as our latitudes, driving nearly all the living beings towards the tropics.
Some animals, however, managed to adapt to the new climatic conditions and continued to live in the regions of the North. A typical example of this is the mammoth, a large woolly elephant, remains of which have even recently been found in the frozen sands of Siberia.
The severe cold froze vast stretches of water, particularly around the North and South Poles. Water vapour froze in the clouds and fell as snow, covering the continents so thickly that it did not melt. This made the flow of the rivers dwindle so much that many of them disappeared and the seas were no longer fed as they used to be. Yet the oceans continued to evaporate, although the vapour did not return to them as rain. The level of the oceans thus gradually dropped and the floors of the seas were revealed. Even the deep trench of the Bering Strait was left dry, after several million years under water.
The effect of Great Ice Age and the retreat of the ice made a deep impression on the surface of the Earth. As they moved slowly along, the glaciers eroded and scoured, digging out valleys and gradually stripping the walls of rocks. The trails of waste they removed piled up at the base and sides of the glaciers, where it eventually formed huge hills of rock debris.
Vast deposits of rock waste, left behind by the glaciers, are to be found around lakes, such as the Italian Lake Maggiore and Lake Garda.
There is another, more important aspect of the retreat of the glaciers. The enormous quantities of water, collected on hill-tops in the form of snow, rushed down into the valleys as the temperature rose. There they formed raging torrents and rivers which swept away all that came in their path. The mountains were eroded away but, at the same time, vast heaps of debris built up in the valleys. This action was particularly strong in the Alps.
The Po River Basin, which had been covered by the sea up until then, was formed in the Quaternary Period (which covered the last two million years) by the loads of debris carried down into the valley by the rivers.
The Neolithic Age brought the first appearance of dwellings which could probably be called houses. They were built in regions where the soil was fertile enough for cultivation. They consisted of huts, either singly or in groups, the floors of which were hollowed out a little below ground level. This partially underground construction had two advantages : it was easier to erect the poles which supported the building, and in winter the temperature inside the hut was higher. Even in Neolithic times houses were sometimes built with several interior rooms, and even with stables and sheds. A special type of town was made up of prehistoric lake dwellings, or palafittes, like the one shown. These were houses built on the stilts at the water's edge or on marshy ground, to give protection from wild animals or enemy tribes. Today in the Indian subcontinent there are still tribes living in palafittes. Of all the houses of antiquity (in Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia or Rome) the Roman house was the best and most comfortable.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:09 PM | Posted by admin
In prehistoric times, before man began to build artificial shelters or houses as we understand the word, they lived in caves. Inside these caves it was impossible to make an oven for cooking food. The group generally set up camp at the mouth of the cave or on a rocky ledge nearby. These people may have slept in the caves, but it was on the threshold that they gathered to talk, to fashion their tools, to cut up the spoils of hunting, to prepare their meals, and even to bury their dead.
After huts man developed buildings made of baked bricks. Shown here is part of a city in the Indus valley of 2000 BC.
Nowadays many people live in blocks of flats. Modern blocks are often built of reinforced concrete. This consists of large sections concrete with steel rods embedded in it to give added strength.
Ever since the dawn of language and thought man must have felt the need to record his ideas and emotions in some permanent form, and he has continued to look for ways of doing this right up to the present day with its gramophone records and magnetic tape. An old Latin saying proves the point : 'The spoken word is forgotten but the written word remains.'
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:05 PM | Posted by admin
The first alphabets were developed among the populations devoted to agriculture and stock - raising in China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Central America. In Chinese, writing does not approach the name of a thing by breaking its sounds down into letters and syllables but set out to express the thing itself. Written words are direct representations of things or ideas (ideographs) or of particular spoken words (logographs). A different ideograph evolved for each objects. So the Chinese language is based on an enormous number of different caharcters rather than on the letters of an alphabet.
Did you know . . .
. . . that the famous Rosetta stone, discovered by Napoleon's soldiers and deciphered by the scholar Champollion, provided the clue to the secret of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing?
. . . that the modern Western alphabet is based, with some modifications, on that of the Phoenicians, a seafaring and mercantile people?
Sumerian writing dates back to 4000 BC and is the most ancient writing known today. It is characterized by its wedge shaped appearance and is called 'cuneiform' from the Latin word cuneus, meaning 'a wedge'. This alphabet enabled men to collect the first libraries. On the left is some Assyrian writing from the eighth century BC. As the illustration shows, the Assyro-Babylonians adopted cuneiform characters from the conquered Sumerians, and its use spread among other contemporary peoples.
The above illustration on left below shows a bas-relief of a warrior with his spear. This inscription is in Greek. The Greek alphabet can be seen as the link between the ancient alphabets of the Mediterranean world and the alphabet of today. It is worth noting that the Greek alphabet already had 24 signs.
Above on the right is a Bivort shorthand machine (French, 1902). It enabled writing to keep up with the speed of speach. The fountain pen was invented by Bion in 1854, and the typewriter was invented by the Austrian Mitterhofer in 1882.
The shown table compares three alphabets. Notice the similarity between many of the Greek and Latin letters (in capitals).
Today coal has lost the lead it once enjoyed among the fuels. First place has been taken by oil, the precious substance which gushes out of the depths of the Earth, bringing wealth and property to the countries where it is found.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 16:02 PM | Posted by admin
In his search for oil, man has managed to make even the desert habitable, to build enormous platforms to float on the sea, to drill through rock strata down to depths of some 5,000 metres, and has spent enormous sums on doing so.
These are always handsomely repaid once an oil-field has been reached, however, for tons and ton of `black gold` stream out of the well. The oil is taken through pipelines to refineries or tankers.
Oil is generally younger than coal. Its formation dates back to a more recent period in the history of the Earth, to the Mesozoic Era, which lasted 225 million to 65 million years ago. This era saw the rise and fall of the great dinosaurs.
Even in the Mesozoic Era the folding and settling of the Earth's crust continued. Thick deposits of sea and lake sediment accumulated in different parts of the globe. The way in which these deposits are layered shows that the land and seas were successively rising and falling in this period.
The Cretaceous Period, from 130 million to 65 million years ago, take its name from the French Word craie, meaning chalk, which was actually formed in those distant times. This period is one of the longest in the history of the Earth. It lasted for over 65 million years, during which animal-life on land developed in profusion.
Some of the most important oil and natural gas fields discovered in Canada and the United States are to be found in the rocks of the Cretaceous Period. Because of the unsettled condition on Earth, enormous masses of organic substances, perhaps derived from decomposing animals, were imprisoned in the ground where they were gradually transformed until they became the mineral oils of today.
The rock strata of this period are very important, partly because they contain large deposits of copper, aluminium and other minerals but mostly because they also contain fossil traces of the first flower, a sign that great progress was being made in the plant kingdom.
Delhi is the third largest city of India, exceeded in size by Calcutta and Mumbai. The ‘Modern Delhi’ is the capital of Indian Union and lies to the south of Old Delhi. Delhi is situated in north central India and stands on the west bank of Yamuna river. It is bounded on the east by the state of Uttar Pardesh and on the north, west and south of Haryana.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 15:57 PM | Posted by admin
Delhi has been the capital city of a succession of mighty empires and powerful kingdoms. According to the history, city rose and fell seven times at different sites. Different sites were: The earliest reference of Delhi is found in the famous epic ‘Mahabharata’ which mentions city called Indraprastha, built about 1400 BC somewhere between Purana Qila (Old Fort) and Humayun’s Tomb. The historian reference to ‘Delhi’ was actually made in 1st century BC when Raja Dhilu built a city near Qutab Minar and named it after him. Delhi got different names – Delhi, Dehli, Dilli and Dhilli.
During the 12th century it became the capital of Prithviraj Chauhan. After the defeat of Prithviraj by Mohammed Gauri the city went into the Muslim hands. In the beginning of 13th century Qutab-ud-din Aibak made the famous tower, Qutab Minar, and chose Delhi as his capital.
Ala-ud-din Kilji (1296-1316) built the second city of Delhi at Siri, three miles northwest of the present Delhi. The third city of Delhi was built by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq (1320-25) at Tughlaqabad but was abandoned in favour of the old site near Qutab Minar because of the scarcity of water. Mohammad bin Tuqhlaq (1325-51) made the forth city of Delhi as Firozabad which was situated in the area which is now know as Feroz Shah Kotla.
After the invasion of Tamerlane, Delhi experienced temporary diminishing because he made Agra as his capital. But again in 1526 Babar Chose Delhi as his capital. His son Humayun built a new city, Din Panah between Feroz Shah Kotla and the Purana Qila. Shershah drove Humayun out from the country in 1540 and built his new capital, the Shershahi (Purana Qila) as the sixth city of Delhi.
Delhi again lost its importance when Akbar (1556-1605) and Jehangir (1605-27) moved to Fatehpur Sikri at Agra. The city again restored its glory when Akbar’s grandson Shah Jehan (1629-58) laid the foundations of the seventh city of Delhi. He made Shahjehanbad, as his capital, which is presently known as old Delhi. He made several gates such as Kashmiri Gate, Delhi Gate, Turkman Gate and Ajmeri Gate.
After the fall of Mughal Empire during mid – 18th century, Delhi again faced many unpredictable changes. Since 1803 it flourished under British Empire. In 1912 Britisher moved their capital from Calcutta to the modern city of Delhi.
Tags: History, Tours & Travels
Sanchi is famous for its Stupas. This historic site is located to the west of Betwa River in Raisen district, Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh). It is a plain ground a top a sandstone hill. It is about 90 m above its surroundings and has preserved some of the most famous Buddhist monuments for a long time.
Mon 2 Mar 2009, 15:50 PM | Posted by admin
Sanchi is the site of three Stupas.
Stupa No 1, also called the Great Stupa is one of the most magnificent monuments of its time. The Emperor Ashoka probably started its construction in the mid-third century B.C. and later it was enlarged. It is enclosed by a massive stone railing pierced by four gateways. These gateways have elaborate carvings depicting the life of Buddha. Each gateway is made up of two square posts, topped by statues of animals and dwarfs. It consists of a base, bearing a hemispherical dome (anda) representing the dome of heaven enclosing the earth. It is surmounted by a square-rail unit (harmika) from which rises a mast (Yatsi). It symbolizes the cosmic axis. The mast bears umbrellas (chatras) that represent the various heavens (devaloka).
Stupa No.2, with railing decorations, has carvings relating to late Sunga period (1st century B.C.).
Stupa No.3, with its single gateway (torana) was constructed in late first century A.D. These Stupas are a great attraction for visitors. Thousands of people visit them every year.
Other prominent features of Sanchi include a commemorative pillar erected by the Emperor Ashoka (265-238 B.C.). There is also one famous temple Gupta Temple which was built in the early 5th century. On the whole it contains some of the best specimens of the celebrated Indian sculpture.
The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama led an expedition at the end of the 15th century that opened the sea route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope. He was born about 1460 at Sines, in southwest Portugal, where his father commanded the fortress. Entering the service of the Portuguese King John II, he helped to seize French ships in Portuguese ports in 1492. He was a gentleman at court when chosen to lead the expedition to India.
Fri 27 Feb 2009, 20:06 PM | Posted by admin
Many years of Portuguese exploration down the West African coast had been rewarded when Bartolomeu DIAS rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. The Portuguese then planned to send a fleet to India for spices and to outflank the Muslims in Africa. Vasco da Gama was placed in command of the expedition and carried letters to the legendary PRESTER JOHN and to the ruler of Calicut, on India's Malabar coast.
Four ships left Lisbon on July 8, 1497 - the Sao Gabriel, on which da Gama sailed, the Sao Rafael, the Berrio, and a storeship. They stopped in the Cape Verde Islands; from there they did not follow the coast, as earlier expeditions had, but stood well out to sea. They reached the Cape of Good Hope region on November 7.
The cape was rounded on November 22. The expedition stopped on the East African coast, broke up the storeship, and reached Mozambique on Mar. 2, 1498. There they were assumed to be Muslims, and the sultan of Mozambique supplied them with pilots, who guided them on their journey northward. They stopped in Mombasa and Malindi before sailing to the east. They crossed the Indian Ocean in 23 days, aided by the Indian pilot Ibn Majid, and reached Calicut on May 20, 1498. The local ruler, the Zamorin, welcomed the Portuguese, who at first thought that the Indians, actually Hindus, were Christians.
Unfortunately, the trade goods and presents provided by the Portuguese king were suitable for Africa, not India, and the Arabs who dominated trade in the Indian Ocean region viewed the Portuguese as rivals. As a result, da Gama was unable to conclude a treaty or commercial agreement in Calicut. After one further stop on the Indian coast, the Portuguese set out to return with a load of spices. They took three months to recross the Indian Ocean, however, and so many men died of scurvy that the Sao Rafael was burned for lack of a crew. The expedition made a few stops in East Africa before rounding the Cape of Good Hope on Mar. 20, 1499. The ships were separated off West Africa in a storm and reached Portugal at different times. Da Gama stopped in the Azores and finally reached Lisbon on Sept. 9, 1499.
Da Gama's success led to the dispatch of another Portuguese fleet, commanded by Pedro Alvares CABRAL. Some of the men Cabral left in India were massacred, so King Manuel ordered da Gama to India again. He was given the title of admiral and left Portugal in February 1502 with 20 ships. The Portuguese used their naval power on both the East African and Indian sides of the Indian Ocean to force alliances and establish their supremacy. Da Gama's mission was a success, and the fleet returned to Lisbon in October 1503.
Da Gama then settled in Portugal, married, and raised a family. He may have served as an advisor to the Portuguese crown and was made a count in 1519. King John III sent him to India in 1524 as viceroy, but he soon became ill and died in Cochin on Dec. 24, 1524. Vasco da Gama's first voyage to India linked that area to Portugal and opened the region to sea trade with Europe. On that foundation the Portuguese soon built a great seaborne commercial empire, with colonies in India and the Spice Islands.
Tags: Art & Culture, History
From the stand point of History of Indian art Ajanta caves ventilate the most powerful combine of paintings, archiceture, sculptures, which were created from 100 B.C. to A.D.600. Art Historian Sheilal Weiner wrote "The Ajanta caves were once a Buddhist monastic centre. Sculpted in imitation of structural prototypes, the doors, windows,columns and walls of the rock-cut kass were adorned with carved and painting figures....The site is a key to an understanding of the development of Buddhist Art. The oldest caves were excavated during the earliest phases ...and the most recent carvings were sculpted just before the incrusion of Hindu elements. The caves contains old form front at early Hinayana site, traditional form occurring only at Ajanta and Mahayana forms that appears for the first time in the monistic halls and areas of worship. "Thus we see Ajanta caves became the canvas for recording the development of Buddhism from the moral and Philosophical perspective to the icon studded Mahayana Buddhism. These caves are embodiment of Gupta era’s golden age which took Indian aesthetics to a new height.
In seventh century A.D. Hieuen Tsang wrote about this caves which will be our entry point to the subject. "In the east of this country(Mohalach’a= Maharashtra) was a mountain range, ridges are above another in succession, tries of peaks and sheer summits.Here was a monastery the base of which was in dark defile and its lofty halls and deep chambers were quarried in the cliff and rested on those track and faced the ravine. The monestry had been built by A-Che-lo of West India. Within the establishment was a large temple above 100 ft height in which was a stone image of the Buddha above seventy feet high.The image was surmounted by a tier of seven canopies unattached and unsupported, each canopy, separated from one above... the walls of this temple had depicted on them the, incidents of Bhuddha’s bodi and small omens attending all great and swmall were here delinated...’. This is one of the earliest descriptions of Ajanta cave .However this world heritage was accidently re-discovered by Madras Army in 1819 and initial works were carried out by archeologist James Burgess and Major William Gill, who exhibited their work in 1866. Since then much has been written on Ajanta and volumes of reports and monographs have surfaced over the century. Thus today we would only touch upon the aesthetic punctuations of Ajanta Fresco to refresh some of our lost memory.
Whether Ajanta paintings are really fresco? The explanations are found in the words of Benjamin Rowland who wrote about the fresco elements and making of surface for Ajanta cave paintings.In the book AJANTA CAVES he recorded "fresco in its true sense implies the application of colors to a layer of moist lime plaster, Indian and all other Asian murals were painted on a dry wall. At Ajanta the rough surface of the rock wall was covered with a layer of earth or cow dung mixed with chopped straw of animal hair as a binding medium to a thickness of an inch or an inch and a half. When this surface has been completely smoothed off, it was covered with a thin layer of finely sieved gypsum or lime plaster, and it was upon this surface that actual painting was done".
In one of the celebrated analysis of Ajanta Paintings Nalini Bhagwat wrote "It is very significant that the available space at the disposal of Ajanta painter is not restricted like that of Sanchi, Bharut or Amravati sculptures, but is comperatively extensive. The complete wall is at the disposal of the Ajanta artist. There is no limit of frame work except the break up of the area by the doom looms often the wall is fully covered with the composition and sometime when the whole wall is covered, the painting continues at right angle on adjoining wall too" . Thus we see the canvas for Ajanta painters were wide open and the continuance remained the key word of inter-connectivity from theme to theme and then to the culture temperatures. On this given wide unrestricted wall ‘canvas’ painter worked out variety of arrangements mainly horizontal band and differentiation came to the fore with weavy lines. The movement of themes ran from left to right and otherwise as well. Sheilal Weiner observed that "... the paintings, on the otherhand, appear overwheliming, it is due to their close proximity. The slender and elongated figures and the painted Jatakas scenes present no more of a contrast to the colossal and weighty qualities of the principal sculpted deities that do the minor carved deities to the principle shrine images."
The No.10 Ajanta cave is said to be oldest and dates back to first century A.D. In this one can see the depiction of Jataka stories which are indication of previous births of Buddha before attaining Nirvana. The paintings are so arranged in the form of a long freize and theme to theme are linked with frame to frame. However, in some frame the Boddhisattva played the axis which are encircled with various motifs without the classical element of harmonising, nervertheless,the motif and decoration are so placed that one explores one detail to another in an interrelated fashion, without compromising at the axis prominance.
The composition generally confine to single band of ornamentation though in later years paintings overspread the entire surface of the rock canvas. Benjumin Rowland wrote "These paintings overspread the entire surface with human beings in the enactment of Indian Aesop’s fables, have the same sense of teeming life and vitality we encounter in the densely crowded relief of the famous gateways of Sanchi".
At the level of composition, the ‘eye’ of human compassion is almost universal and motifs like human being to animal are punctuated in a manner without loosing its balance or character. Ornamentation and hemming with flower and foliage are depicted with ‘dancing rhythm’ .Vartana or shading on the leaf are uniquly copy-book of ancient aesthetic dictum.
The famous queen depiction in palace (cave I) is one of the unique example lavanya or grace one of the six elements of art mentioned in Kama Sutra. In this composition one finds the lyrical eyes looking downword with compassion. Though the painting has faded but the highlight and shades stands out prominently. Jewels and ornamentations from necklace to arm-band are prominently placed without undermining the flow and movement of the gesture. If we compare this posture with the cave XVII where Indra and his celestial nymphs are shown one can find the contrast. Though both are in their ‘grace’but colour temperature changes rapidly. Indra is given a movement with the puffing air like white and blue shades. The detail of ornaments are given a secondary treatment. But the bhava of compassion is never lost.
In the cave XVII we find a depiction of Jataka "Visvavantra". Here the queen and her associates seen in the palace garden.T he tree with powerful stem and longish leaves are the reliefs. But the window, from where two females are peeping makes it an interesting as if those are wall hanging! The intricacies of any character is not neglected, but again the queen with her standing posture becomes an axis. This is the uniqueness, as none of the character is diluted to enchance one depiction. All are in those isolation got enough highlight without defeating the theme.
If you analyse the eyes of Ajanta fresco, its really unique. The eyes of the princess, kings and celestial gods are drawin with weavy eye-lid of meditative nature to depict the sulime look of grace and compassion. Similarly the eyes of the beggers(Cave XVII) are ‘soothing’ but has an element of pain and suffering. Then in the same cave where a Brahman receiving ‘alms’ is shown with anxious ‘eyes’with the addendums of creases and twitchings. Again in the same cave the eyes of the maid is seen with the ‘element’of action. So the essence of resemblance true to the mind and nature stood prominently in those fresco.
These are some punctuations. But delving deep into the figures, the ‘compsit’compositions and the posture swings with the character and theme of the frame which differed to create style within style, and at times set out trends of super imposition in a tier system .of characters without howerver loosing the sublime purpose of aesthetic compositions.
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